Many people would consider losing their sight one of the worst potential losses that they could encounter. While most of us will not suffer from complete blindness, millions currently suffer from some form of visual impairment, with numbers growing rapidly as we age.
According to the National Eye Institute (NEI), older adults represent the majority of the visually impaired population, with visual impairment included among the 10 most prevalent causes of disability in the U.S.
In a quest to discover methods of managing sight problems, I first contacted Pris Rogers, program manager of VisionAware.org.
VisionAware.org is the website for the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB). This website helps people who are new to sight impairment as well as their caregivers. According to Pris, caregivers are often just as confused and overwhelmed, not knowing where to turn or what to suggest.
"Even though many older adults have overcome an array of problems during their lives, when they receive a diagnosis of this loss, they may believe that there is no way that they can cope with this, since it affects almost all of daily life," Pris remarks. "Often, the doctor has given them a diagnosis but has had nothing to offer in terms of where the individual can turn for help to live with effective eyesight loss."
"But caregivers and persons with visual impairment need to know that there is indeed hope, and life, after vision loss," Pris says. "A wide range of services are available that can enable adults who are blind or have low eyesight to continue living independently. The term ‘vision rehabilitation' includes highly trained professionals and comprehensive services that can restore function after great impairment, just as physical therapy restores function after a stroke or other injury."
10 Tips for Low-Vision Living
- Good lighting is key: Keep rooms well lit. Use nightlights in bedrooms, hallways and the bath at night.
- Eliminate clutter: Return things to the same place. Try using a basket to store keys, TV remotes and other items.
- Remove hazards: Coffee tables, throw rugs or electrical cords can present a tripping hazard.
- Use contrasting colors in the house: This can make your doorways, stairs, and furniture easier to see.
- Use contrasting colors in the kitchen: For example, a white board for slicing red apples; a dark board for onions.
- Mark appliance controls: Use tactile dots or raised markings.
- Use contrasting colors in the bathroom: Towels, washcloths, and bath mats that contrast sharply with the tub and tiles.
- Identify medications accurately: Use large print, tactile labels or talking prescription bottles. Or check with your pharmacist to find out about talking medication devices that are available now in many drug stores.
- Make it easier to tell time: Find out about talking and large numeral clocks, watches, calculators, and other devices.
- Reinvent the reading process: Check into large print books, audio books, smart phone apps, and magnification devices such as video magnifiers in portable and desktop versions.
Pris also suggests that people go to Visionaware.org for more tips.
Insight from an Ophthalmologist
Charles P. Wilkinson, M.D., ophthalmologist and chair of EyeCare America, provides additional insight for low vision management from his medical perspective.
- See your ophthalmologist. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends seniors age 65 and older get a dilated medical eye exam every one to two years, or as recommended by their ophthalmologist—a medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of eye diseases and conditions. During an eye exam, your ophthalmologist does more than assess your eyesight. He or she also assesses the health of your eye and identifies any eye diseases and conditions. Additionally, new glasses may be able to help, even if there are other problems or conditions, such as cataracts.
- Make things bigger. Sit closer to the television or to the stage at performances. Get large books, phone dials and playing cards. Carry magnifiers for help with menus, prescription bottles and price tags.
- Make things brighter. Make sure areas are well-lit and cover shiny surfaces to reduce glare. Consider increasing color contrasts as well. For instance, drink coffee from a white mug and always use a felt-tipped pen with black ink.
- Use technology. Many of today's newer technologies have applications that can help with low eyesight. For example, e-readers allow users to adjust the font size and contrast. Many smartphones and tablets can also be used to magnify print, identify cash bills and provide voice-navigated directions.
- Organize and label. Designate spots for your keys, wallet and frequently used items in your refrigerator. Mark thermostats and dials with high contrast markers from a fabric store; label medications with markers or rubber bands; and safety-pin labels onto similarly colored clothing to tell them apart.
- Participate. Do not isolate yourself. Keep your social group, volunteer job, or golf game. It might require lighting, large print cards, a magnifier, a ride or someone to watch your golf ball. Ask for the help you need.
- Eat for your eyes. Try to consume a diet high in citrus fruits, dark green leafy vegetables, nuts, whole grains, vegetable oils and cold-water fish. These are packed with nutrients that support your eyes.
- Exercise regularly. Even gentler exercise, such as walking, yoga or stretching can be effective in promoting good blood circulation and oxygen intake—two things our eyes need!
- Quit smoking. Not only is it good for your body, it is also good for your eyes. This decision is one of the best investments you can make in your long-term health.
- Wear your shades. Regardless of the season, wearing sunglasses with at least 99 percent UV protection helps protect your eyes from damage.
- Consider low vision rehabilitation. If your eyesight is failing, you can greatly improve your quality of life through vision rehabilitation, which teaches you how to use your remaining sight more effectively. Talk with your ophthalmologist if low vision rehabilitation is right for you.
How caregivers can help
Losing eyesight is often so subtle, it may not be apparent to those whose vision is getting worse. This is where caregivers can come in.
- Squinting or tilting the head when trying to focus,
- Knocking objects over,
- Discontinuing everyday activities such as reading or writing,
- Missing objects when reaching for them,
- Falling or stepping hesitantly, or
- An increase in "dings" on the car.
Encourage open and honest communication. Some people with low vision experience hallucinations known as Charles Bonnet Syndrome. This is often confused with dementia, but is very different and is harmless. Let your loved ones know they can talk to you if something seems to be amiss.
Help identify useful resources. Often older Americans are worried that sight impairments will affect their ability to live independently; so put your loved one at ease by suggesting resources that allow them to maintain independence.
Go to eye exams with them. Write down questions for their ophthalmologist in advance and help them get the answers they need. Be aware and be an involved advocate for your loved one.
I would like to thank both Pris Rogers and Dr. Wilkinson for their insight and tips. Glaucoma and macular degeneration are two common causes of low vision in aging adults. See an ophthalmologist regularly to maintain eye health, and for help coping with impairment from these diseases and others, should a problem occur.