How to Prevent Back Injuries When Lifting Someone


To reduce the risk of back injuries as well as back pain in caregivers, proper lifting techniques and methods need to be learned. In addition to learning proper body placement when lifting or transferring a loved one, a caregiver also needs to assess certain risks, learn to control those risks, and to evaluate methods that help alleviate such risks altogether.

The spine provides the basic form of movement and support for the human body; therefore it is constantly used, and suffers cumulative injuries caused by repetitive lifting of heavy objects. Caregivers must often handle awkward situations in a home environment, including patients who are uncooperative, overweight, fearful, and even wet, all of which increase the risk of injury.

The most important aspect of preventing shoulder, neck, and back injuries is a proper lifting technique. To reduce chances of injury, when transferring patients, caregivers should:

  • Make sure that feet are stable, and as close as possible to the person being lifted.
  • Face the person to be lifted, slightly bend the knees and squat in preparation to lift. Hold in the abdominals and keep the back straight. This will add lifting strength and encourage additional power from legs and arms.
  • Maintain a position as close to the person as possible so that excess strain is not placed on the back by leaning over.
  • When turning a loved one from back to side, distribute weight equally between feet and try to avoid extended forward bending movements as much as possible.
  • Point feet toward the person being lifted. If possible, place one foot in between the person's feet and one foot to the outside for optimal stability.
  • Attempt to lift using a smooth, flowing motion, pushing upward with leg muscles.

When possible, alleviate awkward body positions while bathing, dressing and lifting a loved one. Avoiding twisting, bending, and stooping positions will help to alleviate strain not only on the spine, but also on muscles and joints.

Preventing Caregiver Injuries: How to Lift Safely

Protecting and ensuring the safety of elders is of prime importance for home caregivers. However, many don't stop to think about protecting themselves from injury. By protecting the caregivers, we also provide a safe and secure environment for such care. Preventing injuries, especially back and shoulder injuries (the most common), can be achieved through proper education and attention to body positioning when lifting, turning and transferring patients from one location to another.

Many caregivers taking care of parents or grandparents are simply not suited for such physical stress. With the physical demands of physically lifting, turning and transferring loved ones, injury is common. In fact, it is estimated that musculoskeletal injuries that occur as a result of lifting or moving patients affects nearly 52 percent of caregivers.

Most caregivers in home environments are in their 40s, and 50s. Keeping them, as well as their loved ones, safe and healthy is vital. Learning how to practice good body mechanics in all aspects of home care is essential in preventing injuries.

Common Injuries

One of the most common injuries suffered by caregivers in a home setting is back injuries. Other dangers include exposure to needle sticks when caring for someone with diabetes or someone who needs supervised injections, as well as blood-borne pathogens that may be contained in saliva, urine, and blood. In addition, exposure to contagious illnesses or diseases may also occur. Still, by far, the most prevalent injuries among caregivers are those that involve the back, neck and shoulder joints.

Diane Sewell, an Assistant Director of Nursing at a long-term care center with 30 years of geriatric care experience states, "Most of the causes of injuries to home caregivers are back injuries caused by improper body mechanics when it comes to lifting. If an elder is receiving physical therapy at a facility that is aware of a situation where a family member is going to be taking care of an elderly parent at home, they will often suggest that the caregiver join in a therapy session to learn how to correctly transfer the person in different care scenarios."

Practicing Ergonomics in a Home Care Environment

Ergonomics is a relatively new term that helps to prevent injuries by identifying and alleviating risk factors that put strain on the body in a wide variety of occupations. Ergonomics is practiced not only in lifting, but in all aspects of home health care, including performing ordinary household tasks like laundry and cleaning, to helping a loved one bathe or dress.

Injuries can be alleviated by the use of:

  • Grab bars and toilet seat risers in the bathroom
  • Adjustable shower benches or chairs designed for bathtub use
  • Adequate activity planning to reduce the number of transfers needed
  • Proper training in positioning and ergonomic lifting procedures

Identifying risk factors for injury include:

  • The effort that is required to move a person
  • The posture of the person performing the task
  • The position of the person's center of gravity in relation to the person transferring or lifting them
  • The number of times a person must be moved, turned, or lifted on a daily basis
  • The ability of the person to help with transfers
  • The physical ability of the caregiver to facilitate such transfers

Safe lifting techniques should be learned in order to maintain the safety not only of the individual, but the caregiver. A caregiver who finds that the physical strain of providing care becomes too difficult may endanger safety for their loved one. Knowing when to ask for help and not being hesitant to doing so may prevent unfortunate accidents and injuries.

Whenever possible, assess daily needs to plan and avoid excess numbers of transfers, especially when a loved one is bedridden or suffers from various conditions that may make such transfers difficult. This is not to say that a loved one should remain in one location for as long as possible. Quality of life demands that a patient be able to engage in as many activities as he or she feels up to in order to maintain skills and therapies and activities that facilitate movement.

Why Caregivers Need to Practice Injury Prevention

Unsafe conditions lead to hazards that may affect the security and safety of loved ones in a home environment. In addition to preventing injury among caregivers, preventing injuries to loved ones as a result of falls is a major goal of everyone in the healthcare field. Educating family members in proper lifting techniques, medicine safety concerns, and others aspects involved in home health care is a major concern.

In addition, issues of dignity and quality of life need to be addressed by caregivers. Elders who are not moved often enough often experience skin infections and bedsores that may result in decubitus ulcers that threaten the overall health and condition of the patient.

Taking care of a loved one is not only emotionally demanding, but also is physically demanding as well.

Home care providers should ask professional CNAs (Certified Nursing Assistants) as well as nursing or physical therapy staff for tips on the best methods to help transfer or lift their loved ones when in a home environment.

Says Sewell, "Non-professional caregivers are responsible for obtaining the education they need to properly care for loved ones at home. Many County Health Nursing Departments offer community-based resources that offer training on basic care giving skills for non-professionals. Another option is to call local hospitals for information, who might even suggest professional training through a Certified Nurse's Aide class."

The focus on home care is safety - both for the care receiver and the caregiver.

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My biggest problem is simply lack of Rest. You note that I do not say lack of Sleep - the need to be constantly alert does not make my sleep "restful". I do not think I have had a really decent night's sleep for the last 5 years, since mom started having difficulty getting around, at night she may have to get up and go to the bathroom, sometime she can't sleep herself and likes to get up and wander around, get a snack, drink of water, whatever. I always add that Invariably a suggestion is made that perhaps a relative can help to relieve me sometime, and I always have to answer No, there is no one. I can lie down at any tme day or night and fall asleep, and do, but that does not mean I can rest.
Totally agree with the lack of sleep. It does not take too many nights to go completely bonkers.

My wife has a form of dementia and she cannot speak. Sometimes she understands me, sometimes she does not. I get her up once during the middle of the night to give her a pill. Some nights she sleeps through, other nights and even days she is pacing in the house or in the yard. When she first started pacing I called it "taking out the garbage", because she always ended up in the area where we kept the garbage and I was assuming she thought I forgot it.

She quit for about 6 months and now she is back to doing it again. Here are some of the things I have done.
We moved out of the bedroom, she sleeps on the couch and I sleep in my recliner, which is surprisingly comfortable.
I have the TV programmed for 3 days ahead to her favorite shows. Our TV is old and I assume you can do this much easier with newer TVs. I start the programming at 2:00 am because usually this is about the time she gets restless.

When she wakes up I help her into the bathroom and then ask her if she wants to go back to sleep or watch TV for awhile. If she wants to watch TV I turn it on and it goes to one of her favorite shows and I set the sleep button to an hour or two.

Sometimes it helps.

If I feel restless, I just take a melatonin table and read a book until I fall back to sleep. If she paces, I have gotten to the point where I can just ignore her.

Another thing that helps is my daughter has moved back home with us and is here at times so I can completely fall asleep at times and not worry about her.

When I get adequate sleep I feel like I can cope with anything. If I cannot, that's when I start thinking about my shack in the deep woods where the only one I have to worry about is myself.
Icare for my 86 year old mother and she has both Dementure & Alzihmers she was diagnoied 2 years ago and I too don't get the right amount of sleep. I put locks on the doors and I'm going to put a bell on both doors so that if she tries to go out the door , I set up a baby monitor so that I can also hear her. She goes to an adult day care while I go to work at the loc al high school for three hours. My neice and I are her only caregivers at this time and we are in a carehome program here in R.I. and the team comes in once a week for 8 wks. to see how things are going then it will be once a month and they get me her supplies if I need anything and they show a lot of support with what I' m going through. My mom used to be able to do income taxes for people and she used to be a private secutary now she's having a great deal of remebering who her granddaughter and I are at times.When she speaks its very hard to understand her ,her words come out all jumbled and it frustrates her,but I try to understand her. I'm making a speach board for her so that it will be a lettle easier for her to communicate with me. Dayle from R.I.