Imagine if a senior could receive prompt, high-quality health care at any time, without even leaving his or her home. Telemedicine, or telehealth, makes this possible. The American Telemedicine Association defines this unique approach as “the use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communications to improve a patient’s clinical health status.” Once a novelty, this progressive care delivery model is gaining momentum as a means for lowering costs while improving health care outcomes. In fact, 52 percent of hospitals now use telehealth with their patients in a variety of formats ranging from phone and video conferencing to remote monitoring.1
With today’s rapidly aging population and an increased prevalence of chronic diseases, seniors have become a key target for these services. Benefits include prolonged autonomy, easier access to care and fewer headaches related to traveling to and from on-site visits — all factors that contribute to improved health and a better quality of life.
Keeping Seniors at Home Reduces Health Care Costs
Keeping elderly patients comfortable, happy and healthy at home, instead of in a medical facility, has major financial implications as well. With telehealth technology, seniors can be evaluated and even treated remotely, eliminating unnecessary (and costly) office and emergency room visits. Physicians can spot early warning signs associated with chronic conditions, allowing for early intervention and reducing the chance of hospital readmission.2 Below are some examples of the cost-mitigating impact of this practice:
- One study found that the expense of implementing programs in nursing homes could be offset by a reduction in costs related to transferring residents to emergency rooms (ERs) and physicians’ offices. For example, use of hybrid telehealth technologies could eliminate as many as 387,000 transports to ERs annually, resulting in a cost savings of $327 million. This technology could also eliminate 6.87 million transports to on-site physician’s office visits, with a cost savings of $479 million.3
- A nonprofit that runs senior living communities in Pennsylvania was able to reduce the percentage of patients moving into nursing homes from 20 percent to 12 percent by having frail seniors wear monitoring devices that alert nurses to a fall.4 Although there is an investment involved in implementing such a system, the cost pales in comparison to the expense of transitioning seniors into nursing home care.
- A chain of skilled nursing homes in Illinois is using telemedicine to reduce potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAH), costly incidents that expose elderly patients to health risks while causing stress for patients and families. Through this program, which involves using two-way video communication to enable bedside evaluation by board-certified physicians, approximately 81 percent of patients using the technology can be treated on site.5 This has the potential to save the health system hundreds of thousands of dollars each year by minimizing readmissions and eliminating unnecessary emergency department visits.
- In North Carolina, telemedicine is helping aging adults remain in their homes by decreasing hospitalization rates related to heart failure, COPD and diabetes. Patients with these diagnoses were monitored by telehealth technologies at home in between skilled nursing visits. Both response and intervention times increased dramatically.6
Vital Support for Caregivers
For caregivers who commit time and money to caring for an aging loved one, telemedicine can be a valuable lifeline. From a merely practical standpoint, it helps ease the burden of traveling for provider visits. Caregivers with full-time jobs can avoid taking excessive time off of work to chauffeur a relative to appointments. Moreover, these services empower family members by giving them more opportunities to ask questions and take a proactive role in their senior’s care and recovery.
- One study found that the use of telehealth care in conjunction with discharge planning can help reduce strain on family caregivers, enhance stress mastery and improve family function during the first 30 days after a heart failure patient is discharged from the hospital.7
- At the Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in Illinois, telemedicine offers support for people caring for loved ones with long-term, chronic diseases.8 Medical monitoring services allow for the transmission and review of critical patient information, thereby reducing the number of in-person visits needed. Caregivers receive direct, personalized guidance from a registered nurse when they need it, rather than having to wait for in-office visits to speak to a professional.
All Eyes on the Future
This industry still faces a number of challenges, including legal and regulatory issues, privacy and confidentiality, as well as reimbursement. However, for seniors and those involved in their care, the future appears bright. In 2015, Medicare extended beneficiary coverage to seven new telehealth services, including annual wellness visits and mental health services.9 We can expect this progress to continue as new technologies are created and adopted that help patients and health professionals reduce costs and improve access to care.
Julie Potyraj is the community manager for the MHA@GW and MPH@GW blogs, both offered by the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University. Her passion for population health developed as community health volunteer in Zambia. She is currently an MPH@GW student.
1. American Hospital Association. The Promise of Telehealth for Hospitals, Health Systems and Their Communities. Trendwatch. January 2015. 2. Reduce the Chance of Hospital Readmissions (https://mha.gwu.edu/blog/telemedicine-reduce-hospital-readmissions/) 3. Telemedicine Programs Reduce ER Costs (http://www.americantelemed.org/docs/default-source/policy/examples-of-research-outcomes---telemedicine's-impact-on-healthcare-cost-and-quality.pdf) 4. Reduction in Nursing Home Placement (http://www.cnbc.com/2014/01/13/telemedicine-keeps-seniors-out-of-nursing-homes.html) 5. Reduction in PAHs (http://healthjournalism.org/blog/2015/08/how-nursing-facilities-use-telemedicine-to-reduce-hospital-readmissions/) 6. Decrease in Hospitalizations (https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/topics/telehealth) 7. Reduce Strain on Caregivers (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22633448) 8. Support for Caregivers Medicare Telehealth Coverage (http://www.americantelemed.org/news-landing/2014/11/07/update-on-cms-payment-decisions---two-steps-forward-one-back#.Vz23NPkrJaR)