Estate Administration: Know What To Do When a Loved One Dies
Probate is the process in which a deceased person's property, known as the "estate," is passed to his or her heirs and people named in the will. The entire process, supervised by the probate court, usually takes about a year. However, distributions from the estate can be made in the interim.
The emotional trauma brought on by the death of a close family member often is accompanied by bewilderment about the financial and legal steps the survivors must take. The spouse who passed away may have handled all of the couple's finances. Or perhaps a caregiver must begin taking care of probating an estate about which he or she knows little. And this task may come on top of commitments to family and work that can't be set aside. Finally, the estate itself may be in disarray or scattered among many accounts, which is not unusual with a generation that saw banks collapse during the Depression.
This article sets out the steps the surviving family members should take. These responsibilities ultimately fall on whoever was appointed executor or personal representative in the deceased family member's will. Matters can be a bit more complicated in the absence of a will, because it may not be clear who has the responsibility of handling the probate process.
Tips when Starting the Probate Process
- Secure the Tangible Property
This means anything you can touch, such as silverware, dishes, furniture, or artwork. You will need to determine accurate values of each piece of property, which may require appraisals, and then distribute the property as the deceased directed. If property is passed around to family members before you have the opportunity to take an inventory, this will become a difficult, if not impossible, task. Of course, this does not apply to gifts the deceased may have made during life, which will not be part of his or her estate.
- Take Your Time
You do not need to take any other steps immediately. It's important that you and your family have time to grieve. Financial matters can wait. (One exception: Social Security should be notified within a month of death. If checks are issued following death, you could be in for a battle. For more on Social Security's death procedures, visit https://www.ssa.gov/pubs/EN-05-10008.pdf)
- Meet with an Attorney
When you're ready, meet with an attorney to review the steps necessary to administer the deceased's estate. Bring as much information as possible about finances, taxes and debts. Don't worry about putting the papers in order first; the lawyer will have experience in organizing and understanding confusing financial statements.
The exact rules of estate administration differ from state to state.
- File as an Executor
File the will and petition at the probate court in order to be appointed executor or personal representative. In the absence of a will, heirs must petition the court to be appointed "administrator" of the estate.
- Marshal, or Collect, the Assets
This means that you have to find out everything the deceased owned. You need to file a list, known as an "inventory," with the probate court. It's generally best to consolidate all the estate funds to the extent possible. Bills and bequests should be paid from a single checking account, either one you establish or one set up by your attorney, so that you can keep track of all expenditures.
- Pay Bills and Taxes
If an estate tax return is needed---generally if the estate exceeds $1 million in value---it must be filed within nine months of the date of death. If you miss this deadline and the estate is taxable, severe penalties and interest may apply. If you do not have all the information available in time, you can file for an extension and pay your best estimate of the tax due.
- File Tax Returns
You must also file a final income tax return for the deceased person and if the estate holds any assets and earns interest or dividends, an income tax return for the estate as well. If the estate does earn income during the administration process, it will have to obtain its own tax identification number in order to keep track of such earnings.
- Distribute Property to the Heirs and Legatees
Generally, executors do not pay out all of the estate assets until the period runs out for creditors to make claims, which can be as long as a year after the date of death. But once the executor understands the estate and the likely claims, he or she can distribute most of the assets, retaining a reserve for unanticipated claims and the costs of closing out the estate.
- File a Final Account
The executor must file an account with the probate court listing any income to the estate since the date of death and all expenses and estate distributions. Once the court approves this final account, the executor can distribute whatever is left in the closing reserve, and finish his or her work.
Some of these steps can be eliminated by avoiding probate through joint ownership or trusts. But whoever is left in charge still has to pay all debts, file tax returns, and distribute the property to the rightful heirs. Your parents can make it easier for the remaining family and heirs by keeping good records of assets and liabilities. This will shorten the process and reduce the legal bill. Its not an easy conversation to have, but addressing it as early as possible, before probate is needed, makes the process go far more smoothly and lessens stress for caregivers and family members.