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Alzheimers is caused by specific protein tangles in the brain that cause parts of it to die off.
At this point, I believe that there is still only one way to make a complete and true diagnosis, and that is with a brain autopsy. MRI's and CT scans help diagnose, as well as psychological testing and observation. Sometimes there can be more than one cause at a time going on.
This is a good question, wish there was a cut and dried answer.