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I've read that MRI's are good at diagnosing Vascular Dementia. They are used as a tool. My cousin's MRI revealed multiple strokes.
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The neurologist who examined my mother ordered an MRI to rule out some treatable causes of dementia which can be diagnosed with an MRI. Most causes cannot be diagnosed with imaging studies.
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Brain scans can show physical changes in the brain's anatomy, electrical function, and chemistry. It cannot show dementia, like an xray shows broken bones or fluid in a lung.

Doctors make the diagnosis based on imaging and other studies like cognitive evaluations. Note they will say "symptoms consistent with Xyz" because nobody can know for sure without an autopsy.

An MRI may be one of several tests ordered to understand what's going on in there.
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I don't know that any type of dementia can be confirmed with an imaging device.

Researchers are diligently working on this, as being able to diagnose dementia with more precision could lead to improved treatment plans.
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MRI's and CT scans can detect some types of dementia, but not all. In my Mom's case she had an MRI and CT the results showed the brain has lost tissue, shriveling up. The doc diagnosed her with dementia of the Alzheimer's type based on the test results partially, but more on behaviors and tasks she could no longer complete. Alzheimer's can only be determined to be the cause upon death with an autopsy of the brain.

Someone else may chime in on the types of dementia that can be diagnosed with tests. There are something like more than 70 types of dementia.
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I don't think so.
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