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Heath care: As a veteran, your husband is eligible for VA health care. The question is whether not he has to pay for it ($15 for primary care, $50 per specialist visit, prescription co-pays). It's based on a priority system that has to do with the level of "service connected disabilities" your husband has and otherwise his annual income. More disabilties, especially with a combined rating over 50%, can mean more care if the social workers we spoke with were correct. At the 50% point, all VA health care is free. If he's 70% or greater combined rating, he's eligible for federal VA nursing home.
VA Disability: If your husband has any of the list of "presumed diseases" from Agent Orange:
then you should file for VA disability through your local VA Regional Office. The top ones men of his age typically have are DMII and ischemic heart disease. If he has them and his DD-214 or service records say he was on the ground in Vietnam even as a stop over, these dieases are connected to his time in service, e.g. "service connected." (If any Navy or Coast Guard vets are reading this, there is a list of ships which are presumed to have been exposed as well.)
Alzheimer's disease is not a presumed to have been from contact with Agent Orange per the approved list. To get more care and money through the VA, you'll have to go after the conditions he does have that are on the list of presumed diseases. If he has any lingering injuries from his time in the service, those all get lumped in.
There is a process to pursue this, and it can be daunting. You may need the help of what's called a Veterans Service Organization like the ones in our posting above. While these are not always all they are cracked up to be, you can get free help. You can also obtain assistance from an attorney who specializes in veterans' disability claims, but that will cost you money.
VA pension: Those ineligible for VA disability and then free medical care through the VA can still get financial assistance paying for care through the pension process. We're not as familiar with this aspect as we looked at it then decided to go another route. But, if your husband makes less than the threshold amount, which is reduced by the amount of monthly medical expenses he pays for care (insurance, prescriptions, in home care out of pocket, etc), the VA will make up the difference to the threshold amount. That's all we really know about it. You may need a Veterans Service Organization to purse this.
Personally, we recommend you pursue the disability route. Most Vietnam vets carry a lot of diseases that can be tied to Agent Orange exposure. The VA can provide in home care for those who require it, but if there's any kind of priority wait list, it will be based on the combined rating disability.
Hope this helps!