What can I do to help improve my Dad's balance?

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how to improve balance, increase mobility, and prevent falls

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Don't for get to check vision issues. Poor vision or cataracts can be the underlying cause of balance problems. Get an eye exam every year!
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Well, it all depends on what medications he is taking. You can increase endurance by standing on one leg, then the other. Try to have him close his eyes and see if he starts to waiver when both arms are outstretched. If one goes down, his balance is off kilter. Walking is the best exercise for building up endurance, and if he needs help, go with him. Get him to do as much as he can without injuring himself. Take all rugs out of the house, and carpeting which has a thick pad underneath is also very difficult to walk on, not to mention it has been declared a carcinogen by the FDA. Good luck!
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Have their oxygen checked. My mom kept falling and while she was with me and getting nursing care, they discovered that her oxygen was dangerously low. She is now on oxygen 24/7 and is much more steady on her feet.
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There are courses for seniors on how to "move." These courses teach them to move in a tnoughtful manner so that they are much less likely to fall. Your local senior services office/center can tell you whether they know of anything like this. Sometimes, it is listed as an exercise class with something like the park district, other times as a "thoughtful movement" course through the hospital. It could have all sorts of labels, just to let you know.
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Physical therapy is defintely good advice - but the other thing I've found that has been extremely helpful for my husband with later stage Alzheimer's - and this may sound weird - is water. This helps his balance and mobility tremendously. I notice when he gets the least bit dehydrated, he begins leaning dramatically, which creates balance issues, and he loses mobility. He urinates a lot more, so I'm changing his pull-ups more frequently, but it's a small price to pay for even a moment of improvement in his well being.
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PT and OT.

If the person has a walker (not a rollator) the person needs to walk in the middle of the walker with sides of the walker on the person's side. Feet should be far enough apart to be able to squeeze in your shoe (which you do if you want to check and make sure the person's feet are far enough apart). Back straight. Legs straight. Look straight ahead. Most frail, elderly people want to naturally stoop over with their legs bent while using a walker but if they're able they should stand tall with their rear end tucked in as they walk. Walking stooped over affects a person's center of gravity and walking with legs bent is exhausting (try it!) which will make the person weaker.

There are zillions of exercises that improve balance by making the person's legs stronger. Someone shouldn't sit in a chair or bed all day long and should be getting up and moving about every 30 minutes.

A gait belt is a great tool if the person is very unsteady on their feet and is using a walker. It doesn't improve balance really it's just a safety measure to keep the person from falling.

The person should not use the walker to hoist themselves up into a standing or sitting position and should learn instead to use the arms of a chair or grab bars. A walker is not stationary and will tumble over along with the person if used to change position. Walkers are very light and it takes very little for them to fall over.....just like people with little balance.

Blood pressure should be addressed if too low. This can cause someone to be weak. Push fluids in cases of lower blood pressure (but do so under a Dr.'s supervision).

Balance and mobility is a lot like forming new, healthier habits. Use verbal cues to help the person remember to walk tall, look straight ahead, etc. Sometimes verbal cues have to be used over and over and over again until the person is in the habit of using the walker correctly.
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