I am looking at my mom's finances and see that she has several bonds that expire in 10-13 years. I am filling out paperwork for assisted living for my mom, and see on one of her investment statements that she has several bonds, one taking a loss, that do not mature for another 10-13 years. My understanding is that these were sold to her sometime in the past couple of years. Is there anything that can be done to change this without taking a loss? It seems unethical that a company could sell an elderly person bonds that don't mature until potentially after death.

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Because Memory Care was considered to be 100% medically necessary for mthr, her rent is 100% deductible as a medical expense ($42K). Any of that medical expense which is above 7.5% income is deductible since she's over 65. Long term capitol gains, selling things (stocks & bonds) that she's had for at least a year, is taxable at only 15%. It works out well for us to sell off mthr's assets to pay for her care, even though we won't inherit as much. After all, she saved to pay for her retirement, and this is exactly that.
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Check with her AL to find out what your options are for medical tax deductions. That may offset deductions for early cash out. My mom has both medical and memory care needs. The business office sent out a statement that indicated that 43% of her rent was related to those medical needs. You may want to have next year's taxes done with the help of an accountant for the first year.
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There's a cash value on bonds. They trade all the time. A price below 100 accounts for an interest rate that's below what is current, and over 100 is for one that's got a better than current rate.
Think of those prices like stock prices. Similarly there's taxation on long term vs short. No problem buying or selling, and bonds are often the safest thing for most people going into nursing care. I'm not a financial advisor or CPA, just an old student of investing. 
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